Blog.Himachal Fruits™

Information about Horticulture & Agriculture just to help growers

GRANNY SMITH CHALLENGER® – APPLE VARIETY

Posted on | August 13, 2020 | No Comments

Variety GRANNY SMITH CHALLENGER®

Origin – Mutation of Granny Smith.
Picking date – after Golden Delicious.
Fruit size – Small to medium.

G1
Tree

Blossom date – Before Golden Delicious
Pollinator are – Gala, Golden Delicious.

Pollinator for – For most of Delicious varieties.

Vigour – Strong
Time till first cropping /yields – Average /Very good yields
Susceptibility to alternate bearing / thinning – possible susceptibility to alternate bearing / easy thinning.
Susceptibility / resistance to diseases – Susceptible to scab

Fruit

Skin / shape – green with white lenticels, more pronounced than on Granny Smith.
Flesh / taste – juicy and crisp, sharp and not to sweet taste.
Storage potential – Good for storage.

For elevation above sea level- 5800 Feets – 9000 Feets.

License- GRANNY SMITH CHALLENGER® DALIVAIR C.O.V.

 

Apple variety KING® ROAT – Himachal Fruits

Posted on | August 11, 2020 | No Comments

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KING® ROAT Red Delicious* is a branch mutation of Hapke.

Origin-The mother tree was discovered in Algund (South Tyrol, Italy).

KING® ROAT Red Delicious* is a fully blush strain with intense bright dark red overcolor. Fruits start coloring weeks earlier compared to other strains.

Fruit – Fruit shape is naturally long and symmetric, which results in an elegant, friendly aspect.

Tree- The vigor of KING® ROAT Red Delicious* trees is of semi-spur type, comparable to growth of Early Red One®

Flowering and pollination- It blooms relatively early.

Good pollinators are- Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith.

Storage-Storage period is similar to Red Delicious.

For elevation above sea level- 4800 to 6800

Licence: KIKU GmbH*

Organic cure of canker – Himachal Fruits

Posted on | August 7, 2020 | No Comments

Canker is most common problem in fruits growing area

It can be suspected in plants if symptoms like sunken, water soaked or gummy in summers and monsoons these symptoms with time become darker, reddish brown to dark black and finally stem or branch die which affect all plant slowly and with time whole orchard.

Treatment-
1. Prune canker affected trees when they are active, reason wounds will heal faster.
2. Remove all dead limbs below affected area spray or rub it with Huwa-san®️ and treat plant cuts with paste, preferred organic make.
3. Avoid pruning when plant is entering dormancy.
4. Disinfect pruner / saw when using on other cuts /plants with Huwa-san®️
5. Burn all affected limbs /branches.
6. Use Bordo Plus®️ application (after harvest when leave fall and after pruning).
7. Remove grass in monsoon below affected trees for better air circulation with summer pruning, application of Huwa-san®️ will help as a fungicide also will suppress canker bacteria.
8. Soil application by drenching of Rot Arrest or Emrald Maulika ®️500 ml ➕ Emrald Nivaran®️500 ml in 200 litres will be of great benefit.
9. While application of farm yard manure or any organic manure mix V Rich®️ 150 grams per tree will help to recover roots and also will help plant to uptake nutrients it can be mixed with any organic Fertilizers.
10. Regular use of G5 Granules will be of great help.

⚠️ Avoid synthetic Fertilizers on dry sunny side area.

Note-This method can be cured canker in initial stage, proper care of canker affected plant can increase survival of plant for few years. Its not a one time cure regular care of plant must be practiced strictly.

Go green,Go organic™️canker

What is nitrogen ? how we can feed plants organically – Himachal Fruits

Posted on | August 3, 2020 | No Comments

nopनाइट्रोजन हमारे ग्रह के वायुमंडल में सबसे प्रचूर मात्रा में एक तत्व है। लगभग वातावरण 78% नाइट्रोजन गैस से बना है।

नाइट्रोजन एक स्वाभाविक रूप से उत्त्पन तत्व है जो की दोनों पौधों और जानवरों के विकास में और प्रजनन के लिए आवश्यक है। नाइट्रोजन अमीनो एसिड और यूरिया का एक घटक है। एमिनो एसिड सभी प्रोटीन की इमारत का एक महत्वपूर्ण अंग हैं।
ध्यान दें – एमिनो एसिड।

जैविक नाइट्रोजन पौधे कैसे प्रयोग में लाते है ? जाने ” नाइट्रोजन चक्र ” के माध्यम से।

भूमि तथा पौधों में विभिन्न विधियों द्वारा वायुमंडल की स्वतंत्र नाइट्रोजन का नाइट्रोजनीय यौगिकों के रूप में स्थायीकरण और उनके पुनः स्वतंत्र नाइट्रोजन में परिवर्तित होने का अनवरत प्रक्रम।

वायुमंडलीय नाइट्रोजन का पौधों तथा जीवों के लिए आवश्यक विविध यौगिकों में परिवर्तन और इन नाइट्रोजन यौगिकों का उनके (मृत जीवों एवं पौधों के) वियोजन के पश्चात् नाइट्रोजन गैस के रूप में पुनः वायुमंडल में लौटने की चक्रीय प्रक्रिया जो कई चरणों में सम्पन्न होती है।

-वायुमंडलीय नाइट्रोजन से प्राकृतिक प्रक्रिया द्वारा नाइट्रिक एसिड का निर्माण होता है जो आकाशीय बिजली व् वर्षा जल के माध्यम से मिट्टी में पहुंचता है। यहाँ चूनापत्थर तथा क्षारों से अभिक्रिया होने पर नाइट्रेट की उत्पत्ति होती है जिसका संग्रह मिट्टी में होता है जो पौधों के पोषण के काम आती है। मिट्टी से पौधों द्वारा ग्रहण की गई नाइट्रोजन जटिल कार्बनिक योगिकों में परिवर्तित हो जाती है।

-मिट्टी में विद्यमान विशेष प्रकार के बैक्टीरिया प्राणियों के त्यक्त पदार्थों, सूखे पौधों तथा मृत प्राणियों को सड़ाकर अमोनिया तथा अमोनिया लवण में परिवर्तित कर देते हैं जिसे अन्य प्रकार के बैक्टीरिया नाइट्रेट में बदल देते हैं जिसका संग्रह मिट्टी में होता है। मिट्टी में उपस्थित इस संयुक्त नाइट्रेट को तीसरे प्रकार के (अनाइट्रीकारी) बैक्टीरिया नाइट्रोजन गैस में परिवर्तित कर देते हैं और यह मुक्त होकर पुनः वायुमंडल में वापस पहुंच जाती है। इस प्रकार एक नाइट्रोजन चक्र पूर्ण होता है।

अब जानते है अगर आप को जैविक नाइट्रोजन पौधों को प्रदान करवानी है तो कैसे करवाएं ?

-पौधे आधारित नाइट्रोजन उर्वरकों से बानी खाद जैसे –

अल्फला संयंत्र आधारित, सोया बीन आधारित, नीम के खली से बानी खाद और बिनौला के बीज से बनी खाद।

– जैविक खाद
पोल्ट्री, पशु धन से बानी खाद जिसे हम आर्गेनिक मन्योर, गोबर व् कम्पोस्ट भी कह सकते है।

-पशु आधारित उर्वरकों
ब्लड मील, फेथर मील, बोन मील,फिश मील अदि।

-सूक्ष्मजीव आधारित जो नाइट्रोजन फिक्सिंग की भूमिका निभाते है।
सूक्ष्मजीव जैसे एजोटोबैक्टर, रहिजोबिुम, बेिजेरिंकिा, क्लॉस्ट्रीडियम अदि।
ध्यान दे नाइट्रोजन की कमी स्प्रे द्वारा भी पूरी की जा सकती है।

मिट्टी बचाए, जैविक अपनाएं !

– Himachal Fruits

Posted on | August 3, 2020 | No Comments

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: Organic farming can not feed the world.

: People on anabolic steroids do indeed put on more muscle mass than people not taking steroids. Does this mean we should take steroids in order to be healthier and more muscular? Of course not. The same basic logic applies to our agricultural system.

We fully acknowledge that the likelihood of the world completely switching to organic farming at any point in the near future is somewhere between slim and none. Rather, our hope is that best practices from organic growing systems (polyculture plant systems, organic IPM systems, no-till, etc) will be mainstreamed by conventional farmers, even if their operations don’t become fully organic or certified.

Regardless, this section is intended to dismantle the myth that organic agriculture can not feed the world if such a global shift were to happen. Let’s start with the basics: it’s often claimed that we’ll have to double food production to feed the 9+ billion people projected to be on earth by 2050.

Here are some statistics to chew on:

, , . 70% of the food the world eats is currently grown by small farmers.

. The majority of the exported commodity crops, meat, and dairy we produce go to other first world countries; only 8% goes to non-first world countries.

+ : , -.

: 71% of our adult population is overweight or obese and 15% of households are food insecure.
Based on this data, can you spot the biggest single problem in the world and in the US? An overabundance of poor-quality, hyper-processed addictive junk foods (aka the “western diet“), which are causing epidemics of chronic illnesses and diseases ranging from obesity to diabetes to heart disease. And this type of diet is exactly what a field of GE soy or corn growing in Iowa is designed to provide.

: , – – . ?

Also, consider this: as many studies have shown, we currently produce enough food to feed 10 billion people, and agricultural production the world over is increasing at a rate faster than our population growth. In short: the problem is not one of production.

What is the problem? Largely, it’s poverty, inequality, and a lack of knowledge and technology. Pretty much anywhere you go on earth, if you can afford to buy food, you can get food. Just as we can not solve the problem of third world transportation woes by producing more BMWs, we can’t solve the problems of hunger, malnutrition, and diet-related diseases by producing more soy, corn, and CAFO animals–that will only serve to create new, potentially worse problems.

So how do we actually go about feeding the world? As a global consortium of agricultural scientists and policy experts who studied this question found, the answer (on the production side) lies in investing in “agroecology.” Essentially, this means empowering small farmers throughout the world through education and access to proven farming practices that increase yields while minimizing ecological impacts (what we call “organic” production in the first world).

This also means leveling the playing field from an investment/policy standpoint. , % % .This means taxpayers (you) are paying to give an unfair market advantage to a food production model that can not possibly scale to produce healthy people or a healthy planet.

Closer to home, researchers at Washington State University published a study in 2016 that came to the same conclusions. Their meta analysis reviewed hundreds of published studies and 40 years of data, concluding that, “organic farming can produce sufficient yields, be profitable for farmers, protect and improve the environment and be safer for farm workers.”

Other problems to address to feed the world
Without diving too deep, three other huge interrelated factors that must be addressed in order to truly feed the world today and in the coming century are:

. . In the first world, 50% of the food we produce is thrown in the garbage by consumers. In the developing world, 50% of food produced never makes it to the consumer due to spoilage. Even though both problems technically fall under the category of “waste,” they are fundamentally different problems requiring different technological and cultural solution sets.

. .People in the first world currently eat far more animal protein than is necessary or healthy. The negative ecological and human health impacts caused by producing and consuming low-quality CAFO animals are truly staggering. This pattern can not scale up as more countries around the globe develop. Transitioning to a primarily plant-based, organic diet is a fairly simple solution on paper, but getting widespread adoption is a challenge.

. “ .” (Maybe that’s a less politically-charged term than climate change.) A warmer climate means stronger, more frequent, more intense storms. It means more extreme weather events (extreme heat waves, extreme droughts, extreme floods, extreme forest fires, etc.). It means less nutrient-rich foods. It means more economic stress on farmers, especially in less developed parts of the world, which then leads to mass migrations into cities, which causes political upheavals that lead to refuge crises that trigger destabilizing events even in once-stable western democracies (butterfly effect).

The one-two punch of clean energy and clean farming have the potential to reverse our present trajectory. Even if all the science on this issue is completely wrong, the worst case scenario is that we’ll end up with cleaner, safer living conditions, be healthier, and enjoy better quality food. What a tragedy!
We hope this article provides you with the information you need to better understand and respond to false or misleading claims about organic farming. In our opinion, this is one of the most important transitions the world needs to make moving forward. Just as we desperately need to transition to clean, renewable energy sources, so too do we need to transition to clean, regenerative agricultural models.

Apple Scab Management

Posted on | July 26, 2020 | No Comments

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Apple scab can be successfully managed by integrating #resistant #varieties, cultural practices, and chemical or #biological control.

Variety #selection
Planting resistant or scab-immune apple varieties is the ideal method for managing scab.

Cultural #practices

#Rake and #destroy fallen leaves below apple and crabapple trees in the fall (Figure 4). This will dramatically reduce the number of spores that can start the #disease #cycle (Figure 3) over again the following spring. Leaves can also be chopped with a mulching lawn mower or flail mower but this practice should be coupled with two or three applications of 5 percent #urea to fall #foliage. Urea #applications increase leaf decomposition.

For new #plantings, select a site that gets direct sun for at least eight hours and space trees so that air can move easily through the tree canopies and orchard. Tree spacing will depend on the type of apple tree (dwarf vs. standard) and trellising system. #Prune trees yearly (winter running) also in summer (summer prunning)to open the #canopy and promote leaf drying.

Chemical and biological control

Where resistance to scab is not present, the application of fungicides is the primary method to manage apple scab. #Organic #growers can use bio-control e.g Rot Arrest, Bordo Plus, Huwasan, Nivarr 70% oil, Copper, and light application of sulphur, products to #suppress #disease development but these products should be used in combination with resistant varieties to achieve maximum control. Proper timing of #fungicides is critical for effective control of apple scab. Applications should begin early in the #season when the first green tips begin to emerge and continue on a seven- to 10-day schedule throughout the season. #Early #applications will reduce the number of seasonal sprays needed to manage apple scab and will increase fruit #production and #quality.

Note – Apple scab is economic importance and if not managed, the disease can cause #extensive losses following humid and cool weather conditions during the spring #months. Direct losses result from fruit #infections and indirect losses from #defoliation, which can reduce tree vigor, #winter #hardiness, and #subsequent yield.

जड़ों के बारे में त्वरित तथ्य – HimachalFruits

Posted on | July 25, 2020 | No Comments

Soil-1

अधिकांश पेड़ की जड़ें मिट्टी के शीर्ष 6 से 36 इंच में स्थित होती हैं और जो की लगभग #पेड़ के मुकुट (crown) के व्यास से दो से चार गुना अधिक क्षेत्र पर कब्जा कर लेती हैं।

जड़ें #मिट्टी से पानी, ऑक्सीजन और खनिज प्राप्त करती हैं। इसके अलावा वे किसी भी चीज या किसी विशेष दिशा में नहीं बढ़ती हैं,

जड़ो का #विकास और पौधों का #वनस्पति विकास स्वथ मिट्टी पर निर्भऱ करता है। मिट्टी में नमी के अनुसार जड़ें बढ़ती हैं (नमी का मतलब है, अधिक पोषक तत्व)

#मृदा संघनन, मिट्टी की गहराई में बदलाव और अनुचित पानी जड़ों को घायल कर सकता है, जिससे तनाव बढ़ सकता है और बीमारी और कीड़ों के प्रति संवेदनशीलता बढ़ सकती है।

जड़ रोग से बचने के लिए, एक पेड़ के चारों ओर एक स्वस्थ, जड़ों के अनुकूल वातावरण बनाए रखें। किसी कारण जड़ #प्रणाली गंभीर रूप से प्रभावित हो जाती है, तो पेड़ आमतौर से सूख जाता है तब उसे हटा देना चाहिए ।

#खादों का प्रयोग सोच समझ कर करें। जो भी आप मिट्टी के जरिए आवेदन करते हैं।

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