Blog.Himachal Fruits™

Information about Horticulture & Agriculture just to help growers

Apple Orchard- Monsoon Care

Posted on | June 24, 2015 | No Comments

Great for us as a grower, when we here monsoon is on its way! With it lot of problems comes if it is a case of heavy rainfall e.g. fungus, bacterial issues, deficiencies of nutrients, attack of different pests & diseases, excess irrigation, soil erosion, fertilizer leaching, wash out of foliar application etc
How this problem can be minimized, to get the best quality fruit at the end.
1. Clean ground area– Removal of weeds by CUTTING rather than frequent cultivation because it has disadvantage like humus get depleted, it causes injury to the feeding roots, the trees may be short lived or stunted in growth, soil erosion mostly orchards in steep locations, that mostly we have.

2. Mulching– by dry grass, cutting grass on floor, deodar needles or even by polythene sheets. It can add advantages to the orchards e.g. reduce surface run off, soil erosion, weed control, add humus.3. Drainage-make a way out for water so it does not hold and create issues e.g. fungus, blockage of nutrients in soil due to excess moisture, root rot etc.

4. Proper air circulation– especially at shady places where sunlight doesn’t reaches/hidden curves.
5. Fungicide/Bactericides application – application by consultation.
6. Nutrient application– specially traces elements e.g. Boron, Copper, Manganese, Magnesium with Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) as these are much needed by plant at the fruit development stage after application at least 6 hrs should go dry.
7. Consult – when leaf is turning yellow it doesn’t mean it’s fungal.
8. Frequent visits-one of the most important, no matter how far is the orchards, it needs a visit at least 2-3 visits in a week.

Happy Rainy Monsoon

Happy Rainy Monsoon

Boron deficiency in pome fruits e.g Apple,Pear (External cork/Internal cork)

Posted on | June 6, 2015 | No Comments

Boron deficiency in pome fruitse.g Apple,Pear (External cork/Internal cork)

-Brown tissue occurs near the core
-Cracks may develop in fruit
-Stem and leave symptoms

Boron (B) is required by plants in a very small quantity by apples & pears that’s why it’s said to be a trace element (TE), its deficiency can cause various disorders. Boron (B) deficiency can be observed mostly in moisture or water logged soils and also on sandy or dry soils. Symptoms develop on fruit and leaves.

SYMPTOMS

  • Internal cork

Fruit affected by internal cork often show no external symptoms but can be seen when fruit are cut. Deficiency can be usually seen after 6-8 weeks after petal, in Himachal Pradesh, May end when plant face dry conditions. Round soaked mark appear most of the flesh. The spots dry out and turn very dark from the centre outwards, finally forming brown spongy lesions, often with a greenish halo. Lesions in the core region sometimes run together, dry out and form cavities. The brown tissue normally occurs closer to the core than the skin.

  • External cork

It is more likely to occur if boron deficiency occurs early in the growing season. It causes rough marks and makes to appear as fruit matures. Rough brown or reddish spots may occur which later crack & the skin dries up, leaving a rough corky fruit skin. Dark brown to greenish-black lesions with a green border occur on or just beneath the skin, mostly in the depressions, it later become dry and corky.

  • Stem and leave symptoms

Boron (B) deficiency occurs in middle of season. Leaves oBoronn fresh growth become distorted and turn yellow with red veins. Small brown necrotic areas develop at the margins and leaf tips. The new shoots may die from the new growth tip. If mid-season deficiency is not treated before dormancy, dieback can develop in spring. In spring dieback, buds fail to develop. Affected twigs die back and an abnormal number of small branches may develop from below the dead portion. Dieback can also be a symptom of problems other than boron deficiency. Boron deficiency can also lead to rosette symptoms in leaves. Leaves become dwarfed, thickened and brittle and are found on much shortened twigs. Zinc (Zn) deficiency can also cause leaf rosettes, but the presence of corky lesions in fruit will distinguish between the two.

In apples the fruit symptoms of boron (B) deficiency can often be confused with calcium (Ca) deficiency, especially where cracking is not visible or at initial stage.

How to Increase Soil pH

Posted on | December 24, 2014 | No Comments

How to Increase Soil pH
Many apple growers have a problem of low pH in their soil. Some soils are acidic by nature and, in other cases, low pH is the result of heavy use of inorganic/synthetic fertilization, tilling and irrigation.

pH of soil  below 5.5 can affect like reduction in yields of crop & increases nutrient related problems. Condition like this  pH, the availability of micro-nutrients such as manganese(Mn) , aluminum (Al) and iron(Fe) increases and toxicity problem of micro-nutrients can occur, which invites many problems.

On opposite side , Soil that have low pH, availability of other essential nutrients, such as Potash(K) , Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) is decreased and might result in deficiencies.

pH changes are much more rapid than in soils. Although various growing media are available with different baseline/starting pH levels, the effect of fertilization and irrigation on their pH levels can be enormous.

Increasing soil pH using Lime
This is the most commonly adopted technique to raise the soil pH is applying agricultural lime. Solubility of lime is relatively low, so if it is applied only to the soil surface, it usually affects only the top layer of the soil, not more than a few centimeters deep.

In soil-less matter, lime should be incorporated into the source before planting and the process is usually logistically difficult. Waiting until after planting only makes it more complicated, because the lime should then be individually applied to each growing container or each plant. If thinking to apply lime through irrigation, wont give results as due to its very low solubility, it’s not recommended to apply lime through irrigation.

Neem Oil for controlling winter season disease & pests

Posted on | October 26, 2014 | No Comments

Neem oil for controlling winter season diseases and pests

Winter season is the 1st step & is considered to be the exact period for controlling pests and also to take preventive measures to avoid pests & fungal diseases for upcoming spring. Winter season is known to restrict the populations of pests and plant diseases some how if snow fall is good and plant get sufficient chilling hours half work is done. But few pests still exists and cause all problem. Problem caused by these pests in plants are observed to be worse than in other seasons, and it’s due to lack or improper monitoring of them. Since it is difficult to identify the pests in the garden because of snow or frost, the appropriate controlling measure for pests becomes hectic for the farmer to carry. Some of the pests include aphids esp woolly apple aphid, scale, tree borer, etc. Characteristic measures need to be taken for controlling such pests are as follows:

Wooly Aphids: Aphids are destructive insects found commonly in fruit bearing trees, and they can be minimized by developing the colonies of wasp which will serve as a beneficial insect to control aphids. Organic treatment of this insect is done by spraying neem oil to repel the insects from breeding. Neem oil has the capacity to subside the population of all kinds of aphids effectively.

Scale: Scales are commonly occurring insects in trees belonging to citrus family. These are small insects feeding on sap part of the plant, and they are resistive to general pesticides because of the waxy coating over their body. Thus spraying of organic neem oil will be a cheap and advanced solution to get rid of them.

Tree Stem borer: These types of borers attack the trunk of the tree. Trimmed parts are burned during winter for warmness. Injecting neem oil into the holes of the borer can kill the borers.

Organic type of treatment helps the plants not only to control the disease but also to prevent it.

Trace Elements after Post Harvesting

Posted on | September 26, 2014 | No Comments

Trace Elements after Post Harvesting

As the harvest season is on a close, attention should be given to next year’s crop potential and time has come to take of that too.

Foliar application of Micro elements is very beneficial. The highly recommended micro elements to apply now are Magnesium, Zinc and Boron ( Most Important Zn & B ). Movement of both Boron and Zinc is minimal in the tree until extension growth commences.

Boron (B):
B involved in Calcium mobility, cell membrane integrity and cell wall polysaccharides and is well known to influence good pollination, seed set and fruit shape. It is prone to leaching and during winter levels can fall below the desired requirements for fruit production, therefore post harvest application of Boron plays an important role to ensure adequate levels at bud burst.

Zinc (Zn):

Zinc is essential for the production of the primary growth hormone – auxin and is required by a large number of enzymes and for chlorophyll production.

Magnesium (Mg):

It is also common to apply Magnesium at this time although it is quite mobile and deficiency can usually be corrected relatively easily during the growing season. Magnesium is part of the chlorophyll molecule and is
subsequently critical for photosynthesis.

Manganese (Mn) & Iron (Fe):

Manganese and Iron are also essential in photosynthesis through enzyme activation and electron transfer respectively. Iron has limited mobility in plants and both Iron and manganese uptake can be easily affected by high pH soil conditions

THE WOOLLY APHIDS(Erisoma lanigerum)

Posted on | October 2, 2013 | No Comments

The woolly aphid (Subfamily: Eriosomatinae) is a sucking insect that lives on plant fluids and produces a filamentous waxy white covering which resembles cotton, fur or wool. The adults are winged and move to new locations where they can lay egg masses. The larvae often form large cottony masses on twigs, for protection from predators. At first it feels like that it is a fungus with time, they usually appear in the spring time on some plants, also can be seen at winters on tree stems usually on fruit trees and shrubs such as Apple, pear, Prunus, crab apple, cherries, apricot , pyracantha, cotoneaster and elm.

Woolly aphids feed by inserting their needle-like mouthparts into plant tissue to withdraw sap. They are able to feed on leaves, buds, bark, and even the roots of the tree. As a result of feeding on the sap, woolly aphids produce a sticky substance known as honeydew, their action causes a callous-like lump or gall to grow, which provides better access to their reward. These remain after in infestation has gone and affected branches do not usually regain their vigor so if possible they should be pruned out. If a plant is badly infested it may never recover properly and it can be better to replace it. The adults are about 2mm long and a pinkish-brown colour, although they appear to be white with their waxy protection. They overwinter as young in crevices and cracks in the bark, emerging in the spring forming rapidly growing colonies on new shoots and at pruning cuts where the sap is more readily available. This causes weak growth of the plant and the leaves may fall due to the lack of sap to keep them functioning. Each adult can produce up to five live young per day and after a few generations winged adults develop to spread to new branches and nearby trees.

Treatments

Chemical –On edible apples, including crab apples, the trees can be sprayed thoroughly with deltamethrin ( lambda-cyhalothrin or thiacloprid (ready to use formulation only). The minimum period that needs to be left between treatment and picking the fruit on apple trees for these pesticides is seven days for deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, or 14 days for thiacloprid. Avoid spraying during the flowering period. Use imidacloprid, pyrethroids or bifenthrin – spray as late in the day as possible to avoid Ladybirds and other friendly creatures.

Note : Follow directions and precautions given on packs, especially if treating fruit trees.

Organic

  • Check tree shoots and bark regularly for signs of woolly aphid.
  • Scrub areas within easy reach with a brush and a bucket of soapy water.
  • Spray infested areas with a firm jet of water to help reduce aphid numbers.
  • Spray with natural fatty acids such as an insecticidal soap.
  • An acceptable organic spray is made from an extract of the Neem tree called Azadiractin.
  • Few Herbal based(Ayurveda) insecticides also available which do not harm friendly insects. Please refer www.himachalfruits.com for products.

Biological Control

Natural enemies can be very important in the control of aphids, especially in gardens not sprayed with broad-spectrum pesticides (organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids) that kill natural enemy species as well as pests. Usually natural enemy populations do not appear in significant numbers until aphids begin to be numerous.

Among the most important natural enemies are various species of parasitic wasps that lay their eggs inside aphids. The skin of the parasitized aphid turns crusty and golden brown, a form called a mummy. The generation time of most parasites is quite short when the weather is warm, so once you begin to see mummies on your plants, the aphid population is likely to be reduced substantially within a week or two.

Many predators also feed on aphids. The most well known are lady beetle, lacewing, and syrphid fly. Naturally occurring predators work best, especially in a small backyard situation.

Aphids are very susceptible to fungal diseases when it is humid. Whole colonies of aphids can be killed by these pathogens some fungi that infect and provide biological control of aphids, including Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii, and Neozygites fresenii, can provide good biological control of aphids.

Prevention

  • Regularly check plants for signs of infestation and deal with them as soon as they appear.
  • Encourage natural enemies like ladybirds, hoverflies and lacewings to become established in the garden by planting daisy-like flowers, yellow flowers and in particular, the poached egg plant Limnanthes douglasii.
  • Avoid using broad spectrum insecticides which will kill beneficial insects as well as aphids.
  • Encourage insect-eating birds such as, by hanging feeders in winter and nest boxes in spring.
  • If planting new apple trees, use rootstocks which are resistant to apple woolly aphid.
  • Use chemicals carefully if possible try to avoid, excessive use can harm trees and friendly insects and small birds.
  • Paint pruning wounds with a tree coating composition to help prevent infestations establishing.

Why & When, What & How Farmer Should Do?

Posted on | October 2, 2013 | No Comments

Contributed by : Prof. Dr. V. S. Bawasakar

>Every year from first week of June farmer should sow cucumber so farmers can start harvesting in the end of July.Farmer can take  this crop again from 15th Nov to 15th Jan.  This gives farmer good crop with good rates for  cucumber at least  for  minimum two months.

>On the Mahashivratri day sow the onion seed & re transplant it within a month, benefit  farmer get leafy vegetable of onion that fetches Rs. 4 to Rs. 35 / bundle from Gudhi Padwa to Ashad (June, July) month.

>In the beginning on 5 guntha to 10 guntha plots sow (broadcast) coriander in summer from 17th  March to 19th  May or even the first week of June by application of Dr. Bawasakar Technology you get excellent results, good crop, lustrous and reap very nice rate for green coriander  in the market. There are examples in many states of having earned 5 lakh rupees in two months from  5 acres of land brought under coriander crop in summer & pitru paksha.

>In June – July farmer can  grow marigolds, aster, chrysanthemum (Shevanti) sthats gives farmer chance to earn good profit during ganpati, dusurra, Diwali festival it fetches lucrative profits.

>Similarly farmers can earn profits by marketing marigold during Gudhi Padwa & Akshay  Trutiya  to  get  good  rates  for  flowers  of  tuberose  also come during the marriage season in India it gives you the best rate. During off season rates are down as low as Rs. 12 to 20 in/kgs and farmer goes into loss.

>Dr. Bawasakar Technology application in open field condition to Exotic & Dutch flowers, capsicum gives extraordinary quality better than poly house/ green house crop in general and you can make good money by selling flowers (roses)during  valentine day and / export them in various parts of the world. Hundreds of new comers in poly house crops growing since 40 years have found Dr.Bawasakar Technology as boon to get quality results.

>Growing of rice/dhan by application of Dr. Bawasakar Technology quality during the season gives good yield of  rice/dhan.

Application  of  Dr.  Bawasakar  Technology  for  ginger  &  turmeric  crop disease free high & better quality yield of seed plot & commercial crop.

>In Sept Hasta Bahar of lime crop is very paying generally due to heavy rains of hasta this bahar fails & you get a bumper crop of lime during summer. But by proper application of  Saptamrut, Harmony & Kalptaru you get good quality bumper crop of lime during summer which fetches very high profits.

>During April & October pruning of grapes being adjusted so that the grapes come to market during Ramjan & Christmas which fetches better profit.

>Strawberry  plantation be done such (during Aug.-Sept.) so that fruits fetch good & high rate during Christmas. So is the Case with water melons, musk  melon pomegranates and such other fruit crops.  You must have good study of the market so that application of Dr.Bawasakar Technology gives you results. Fruits obtained during the festival period & exported world over fetches 2 to 4 times market rates.

>After the Ganpati festival or mid September  there is pitru paksha during this time the vegetables should be brought to the market during this fortnight which fetches you better profit.

>In the month of Oct. – Nov. (But–now a day’s weather has changed cold winter comes late in Dec.) before the start of winter (15 day’s before) sow Bhendi so that you can reap good harvest in winter and make lucrative profit see that everyday or on alternate day you pluck tender bhendi (Lady’s finger) fruit which has good market.

>Before the Navaratri festival, after the harvest of early onion (Halwa) and harvest of kharif Bajra while taking rabi crop of wheat by applying Germinator to wheat seed  sow  it  before  19th Nov  and  irrigate  afterevery  Intervals  21  days start it as (21,42,63,84 & 105 day’s) Never forget to irrigate on 21 day’s after sowing; for per one day late watering gives 1 bag (Quintal) less yield of wheat / Acre.

>If Protective irrigation is not sufficient for 42 days then irrigate on 63 days. On 63 & 84 do irrigate (flowering time) & 105 days i.e. dough stage grain formation Stage of wheat.

>Right  from  the  beginning  just  before  irrigation  give  3-4  spray  of  Dr. Bawasakar Technology Saptamrut makes use of Kalpataru  /50 kg 2 bags one at sowing & another after the time of first weeding for wheat.

>If there is dry weather and not much rainfall and less humid climate but good arrangement of irrigation (drip) than Mrug Bahar of pomegranate whose fruits are ready for harvest in Jan-Feb of next year. If you prefer to take Ambia Bahar (Dec-Jan) then the fruits are ready in July and August. Now Since Las 3-4 years pomegranate is having better rates for bhagva, Mrudula from 60-70 Rs. To 100-140/kilo and farmers are taking 4-6 lakh Rs. /Acre.

>Generally April and Oct. Pruning of grapes should be so adjusted that grapes come to market early during Christmas and finish lay March end so that you can get a good market rate to the grapes. This year 2012, the market rates were high.As the quarantine standards are complicated for European Market it is better to sell  the  grapes  in  Indian markets.  Thousand  of  grape  farmers  have obtained good quality yield or good (more) Profits on using Dr. Bawasakar Technology as per recommendation.

>Strawberry  can  be  grown  anywhere  in  India  by  application  of  Dr. Bawasakar Technology. However to get good profit by using  Dr. Bawasakar Technology you should see that strawberry comes to market in Dec. during Natal and is finished by March end & if it continues in April & it gets perished earlier.

>Custard  apple  should  come  during  the Gauri Ganpati festival.  During  Dec.Bahar treatment should be done by cutting the unwanted vegetative growth & died(Necrotic) branches and to leave crop on resting (No watering). Then in Feb. or March  end  (During  Mahashivaratry)add  cow dung  20-30  kg  or  1-2  kg Kalpataru / plant + if required any NPK fertilizer and give light, Medium & Normal water within 7-8 days. This initiates  flowering in April, May. To avoid flower drop due to high temp & hot sunshine, make use of saptamrut of Dr.Bawasakar Technology in consultation with our expert from nearby K.V.K. or asking our technical staff. The fruit bearing during Gouri festival gives lucrative profit and avoid a flush of crop during Dasara-Diwali when prices dwindle down.

>In fig the khatta Bahar or Mitha Bahar can be obtained with good quality used by Dr. Bawasakar Technology (Krishi Vidnyana Dec. 1999 page No. 21) Fig generally is between B 70-100 / kg.

>Early onion (June planting) can come in Aug-Sept and has better keeping quality as it transforms one patti to many pattis by application of Dr. BawasakarTechnology and fetchers more rate as experienced by hundred is of farmers during the last 25 yrs & more. Generally late varieties grown  in winter (Sept to

Dec.) harvest after 4 months between Jan to May store during monsoon in shed and sold in the market during 15th Oct. to 15th Nov.  which is the best season in Kerala, Karanataka & Tamil Nadu.

>In Mangoes, Alphonso does not bear fruit every year and comes late in April, May as a consequence form  spongy tissue. By adoption of Dr. BawasakarTchnology and Kalptaru  (O.M.) this can be successfully avoided by taking crop during March-April month with a high degree of improvement in quality & yield . In case of Keshar variety of mango which is gaining good acreage in many states by dopting  of Dr. Bawasakar Technology the bearing is regular and yield & quality also increases to export quality.

>In shravan month June (Mrug) and Vaishakh (Feb-March) if possible take crop of mung leguminous crop which is ready in 45 days and can fetch goodamount of profit.

>In orange orchards in part vidarbha & Marathwada and other states of India the acreage under orange (citrous) is getting reduced the existing orchards are catashophically  getting  devastated  because  of  in  fesotion  of  diseases  and creating deformities good success is achieved by application of Dr. Bawasakar

Technology as schedule.

>While taking green chili crop planting should be bone such that the crop comes for harvest during March to June (Summer) when the crop grown and yield is less in general but can overcome this problem by use of Dr. Bawasakar Technology and can accrue regular money during the summer.

>In light to medium salt free soil having free lime i.e. CaCO3 <5% and having no other salts, but even with less water availability (drought prone areas) & having high temperatures (35 to 40 C.) i.e. these adverse conditions are virtuous for taking  Drumstick  crop.  We  have  selected  from  Coimbatore  varieties  &recommend  ‘Siddhi  Vinayak’  drum  stick  which  is  grown  successfully  by thousand  of  farmers  all  over  India.  (Please  refer  Drumstick  book  of  Dr.Bawasakar Technology.)

>Let Banana Plantation be with suckers or tissue culture. With application of Dr. Bawasakar Technology the crop has been excellent. The foreign scientists & ministers, Progressive farmers saluted & admired the result of Dr.Bawasakar Technology.

>The crop of hybrid papaya be taken such that it is ready during Ramjan period to get good rates. Haryana, Punjab (Ludhiayana) Markets are good with the result of Dr. Bawasakar Technology.

>The Tomato crop be planted in March, June & December month so that you get a good price for the crop in another period of the year there is a glut of harvest and rates are enormously low.

>Brinjal  having  small spikes and the one having purple color (weighing 200gm to 500gm) but having less seeds which is suitable for bhareet recipe is in high demand and fetches good income in a season. By    Dr. Bawasakar Technology can take good returns by selling many crops. It gives export quality.

>In case of cabbage the harvest fetches good rate during summer (i. e.-Feb). So plant cabbage  two months in advance. The size should be between 250gm to 400 gram coconut shape which is sufficient for square family.

>For cauliflower generally there is demand in Aug. & Feb. & hot summer. The size should be weighing  bet 250 to 500gm, super (snow white) in color. In areas of Sangli and parts of states where crops is gram is saline or problem soils the fruit becomes purple in colour. This is overcome by application of  Dr. Bawasakar Technology.

>The fruit & Veg. Markets are dull in June because of school admissions, in Dec.  because  of  instalment  premium,  payment  of  taxes  and  some  time  in summer too because purchasing power is low. The markets are higher on Sundays  &  public  holidays  and  month wise  during  August,Oct,Nov (Dussera, Diwali festival.)

>Availability of Eight month water has also become scarce due to less, erratic and less duration of rainfall. Therefore, the water table has gone very deep. The water availability in sub soil strata has been reduced, so much so that water for drinking is also a great problem from Jan to June-July. There for rainwater harvesting recharging of wells is an alternative source  to overcome this plight.

>Due to less water, higher population there is high demand for good quality vegetables  in  summer  so  use  water  of  Judiciously uses  to  circumspect  this situation and enjoy the best quality crops & good health & good profit.

>It is recommended that growing of SVS Drumstick in moderate soil & water early you can get almost 70 thousand to 1 lakh Rs./acre in one year. Besides in the first year & subsequent years you can take an inter crop as bonus (Refes Krushi Vidnyana March 2010 Page No. 29, Mr. Vasantrao kale) for guidance  and read our book on Drumstick  so also (Krushi Vidnyana), March & April 2012.)

>For growing organic vegetables, fruits, flowers you may adopt all necessary precautions.  Our  Krushi  Vidnyana  Kendras  will  guide  you  including  our corporate office in Pune for more information & guidance.This fetches 2 to 4 times higha rates in the to city market & export market .

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