Blog.Himachal Fruits™

Information about Horticulture & Agriculture just to help growers


Posted on | October 2, 2013 | No Comments

Panchakavya, an organic product blended from five offerings that evolve from the cow, used in Indian medicine since time immemorial and now being used, with astonishing results, to safeguard plants and soil micro-organisms and to increase fruit and vegetable production.

The Sanskrit word Panchakavya means “mixture of five products”, and it has been used in traditional Hindu rituals throughout history. Panchakavya is a concoction prepared by mixing five products of Cow. The three direct constituents are dung, urine, and milk; the two derived products are curd and ghee. When the above five products of the cow are suitably mixed and used, these have a miraculous positive influence on living organisms.

Nutrient Content and Components of Panchakavya

  • Cow dung: It has undigested fiber, epithelial cells, bile pigments and salts rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, micro nutrients, intestinal bacteria, fungi and microbial organisms. It contains 82% water and solid matter 18% which constitutes minerals – 0.1%, ash -2.4%, organic manure -14.6%, ca and Mg -0.4%, so3 -0.05%, Silica-1.5%, N -0.5%,P-0.2% and K-0.5%
  • Cow’s urine: It contains uric and hippuric acids in large quantities along with minerals like sodium, chloride, sulfates of calcium and magnesium, potassium hippurate etc. It is a rich source of urea and acts as a nutrient as well as a hormone. It contains water 91% and solid matter 19% which includes minerals1.4%, ash 2.0%, manure 6.0%, ca and Mg 0.15%, Silica 0.01%, N1.0%, K 1.35% and P in traces. Urine contains most of the N(63%), and S(50%), wastes which are readily soluble.
  • Cow’s milk: It contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, amino acid, calcium hydrogen, lactic acid and also Lactobacillus bacterium. Many microorganisms could ferment either five or six carbon sugars, but the Lactobacillus bacterium could ferment both.
  • Ghee: It has vitamin A, vitamin B, calcium, fat, etc., and is also rich in glycosides, which protect the wounded portion from infection.
  • Curd: Cows curd is rich in microbes (Lactobacillus) that are responsible for fermentation.

1. Panchakavya material

Panchakavya, a Bio organic product has the very best potential and plays important the role in  promoting growth and providing immunity in plant system and act as growth promoters. Panchakavya have important content e.g. cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd, sugercane, Cow ghee, banana, Tender coconut and water. When suitably mixed and used, this has miraculous effects.

  • Cow dung – 7 kg
  • Cow ghee – 1 kg

Mix the above two ingredients thoroughly both in morning and evening hours and keep it for 3 days

  • Cow Urine – 10 liters
  • Water – 10 liters

After 3 days mix cow urine and water and keep it for 15 days with regular mixing both in the morning and evening hours. After 15 days mix the following and panchakavya will be ready after 30 days.

  • Cow milk – 3 liters
  • Cow curd – 2 liters
  • Tender coconut water – 3 liters
  • Sugarcane Juice- 3liters
  • Well ripened banana – 12 nos.

2. Preparation

All the above items can be added to a wide mouthed mud pot, concrete tank or plastic can as per the above order. The container should be kept open under the shade. The content is to be stirred twice a day both in the morning and evening. The Panchakavya stock solution will be ready after 30 days.It should be kept in the shade and covered to prevent houseflies from laying eggs and the formation of maggots in the solution. If sugarcane juice is not available, add 500gm of jaggery dissolved in 3 liter of water.

Physical chemical and biological properties of Panchakavya

Chemical composition



EC dSm2


N (ppm)


P (ppm)


K (ppm)






IAA (ppm)


GA (ppm)


Microbial Load







Total anaerobes


Acid formers




Physical-chemical properties of Panchakavya revealed that they possess almost all the major nutrients, micro nutrients and growth hormones required for crop growth. The predominance of fermentativ microorganisms like yeast and lactobacillus might be due to the combined effect of low pH, milk products and the addition of sugar cane juice as substrate for their growth.

The low pH of the medium was due to the production of organic acids by the fermentativ microbes as evidenced by the population dynamics and organic detection in GC analysis. Lactobacillus produces various beneficial metabolites such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and antibiotics, which are effective against other pathogenic microorganisms besides its growth. GC-MS analysis resulted in following compounds of fatty acids, alkanes, alconol and alcohols.


Fatty acids


Alconol and Alcohols


Oleic acids




Palmitic acid














Methanol, Propanol, Butanol and Ethanol










Acetic, propionic, butyric, caproic and valeric acids

4. Dosage

Spray system

3% solution was found to be most effective compared to the higher and lower concentrations investigated, 3 liters of Panchagavya to every 100 liters of water is ideal for all crops. The power sprayers of 10 liters capacity may need 300 ml/tank. When sprayed with power sprayer, sediments are to be filtered and when sprayed with hand operated sprayers, the nozzle with higher pore size has to be used.

Drip system 

The solution of Panchakavya can be mixed with irrigation water at 50 liters per hectare either through drip irrigation or flow irrigation

Seed treatment

3% solution of Panchakavya can be used to soak the seeds or dip the seedlings before planting. Soaking for 20 minutes is sufficient. Rhizomes of Turmeric, Ginger and sets of Sugarcane can be soaked for 30 minutes before planting.

Stages of use


Pre flowering phase

Once in 15 days, two sprays depending upon duration of crops


Flowering and pod setting stage

Once in 10 days, two sprays


Fruit/Pod maturation stage

Once during pod maturation

The results of using Panchakavya on


Plants sprayed with Panchakavya invariably produce bigger leaves and develop denser canopy. The photosynthetic system is activated for enhanced biological efficiency, enabling the synthesis of maximum metabolites and photosynthates.


The trunk produces side shoots, which are sturdy and capable of carrying maximum fruits to maturity. Branching is comparatively high.


The root is profuse and dense. Further they remain fresh for a long time. The roots spread and grow in deeper layers were also observed. All such roots help maximum intake of nutrients and water.


There will be a yield depression under normal circumstances, when the land is converted to organic farming from inorganic systems of culture. The key feature of Panchakavya is its efficacy to restore the yield level of all crops when the land is converted from the inorganic cultural system to organic culture from the very first year. The harvest is advanced by 15 days in all the crops.It not only enhances the shelf life of vegetables, fruits and grains, but also improves the taste. By reducing or replacing costly chemical inputs, Panchakavya ensures higher profit and liberates the organic farmers from the loan.


A thin oily film is formed on the leaves and stems, thus reducing the evaporation of water. The deep and extensive roots developed by the plants allow to withstand long dry periods. Both the above factors contribute to reduce the irrigation water requirement by 30% and to ensure drought hardiness.

Panchakavya is easy to prepare, environment friendly, economically viable biofertilizer. Can reduce and replace the use of chemicals.


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